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About the Author:
The author has devoted extensive study to the mystical beliefs and cosmological insights of the Second Temple period, viewing celestial and calendrical systems as manifestations of Divine Order. He extends his gratitude to the academic community for the rigorous work that has dated the Exodus to 1446 BC and for the careful examination of nuanced variations in the Septuagint (LXX) chronology.
For the author, the “inspiration of Scripture” represents a Divine collaboration in which God orchestrates the contributions of individuals with diverse viewpoints, ultimately weaving them into an integrated tapestry of truth.
SYNOPSIS
The effects of different lengths of a year on Biblical Theology
Most numbers in the Bible have symbolic meanings.
The number “twentythree” in the Bible symbolizes reconciliation, but is much more than that. “23” is a cosmic tool God uses to slow or hasten “the appointed time,” Hab. 2:3. By “23,” God stretches or contracts the timeline, so His decrees remain true but with mercy. It’s God’s tool to “cut short” the days of evil or, if needed, to lengthen days of mercy.
If those days had not been cut short, no one would survive, Matt: 24:22a; (Enoch 80:2)
The Lord is not slack concerning his promise, as some count slackness; but is longsuffering to youward, not wishing that any should perish, but that all should come to repentance… as you look forward to the day of God and speed it’s coming. 2Pet. 3:9,12a
“23” is the priestly tool that converts to “25” — “grace multiplied (5 x 5)”. It’s written into the cosmos.
Multiples of “23” unify the sun, moon, and stars (including Venus, “the Morningstar”).
Cosmic multiples of 23
 23 lengthens to 25 “Priestly Years”
 23 x 3 lengthens to 70 “Prophetic Years” of 360 days
 An excess of 7 days (one week) accumulates every 276 solar years (23 x 12) (280 x 360, plus 7 days = 276 solar years). For very long periods of time, the extra week is dropped every 12420 years (276 x 45) for a precise solar year of 365.24219 (4536308 days). 12420 years is 12600 Prophetic years of 360 days with 44 weeks remaining.
 23 x 13 to 300 “Enochian Years” of 364 days
 R. +7.5 days — the exact length of Creation on Enoch’s calendar
 23 x 17 to 403 “Lunar Years” of 12 moons
 23 x 1495 to 1496 “Egyptian Years” of 365 days
 (23 x 7) x (23 x 7) “One Year of Precession of the Equinox
 Venus (“The Morning Star”) is in rhythm with all of the above because Venus lags behind by almost exactly one week every 24 years (i.e., 15 cycles of Venus and 39 orbits). Thus, in 168 years, Venus lags by seven weeks, or in 360 years, 15 weeks. In 276 x 2 years, Venus lags 23 weeks. Thus, in 1656 years (23 x 72, the span from Creation to the Flood), Venus lags “69 weeks”, as per Daniel 9:2427.
Thus, in the above, the solar year converts to a Priestly year of 336 days, to a Prophetic year of 360, to the Enochian year of 364 days, to a lunar year of 12 moons, and to the Egyptian year of exactly 365 days. What they all have in common is the multiplier of 23. Doubtless, the ancients detected this commonality. For them, ’23’ resolved the mystery of time and unified the sun, moon, and stars.
For information about the 336, 360, 364, and a lunar year, see:
 Part One: How the Solar 360 and 364day calendar works
 Part Two: How the lunar calendars work in harmony with the solar
Also, see The “Shmita” is at hand! Jew and Gentile “One New Man” Aug. 6, 2021.
23 binds all covenants together
Twentythree also binds the many covenants in the Bible, including demonic covenants, such as “in the days of Jarod” (Enoch 6). (See the chart: “Covenantal thread of multiples of 23 to the Exodus in 1446 BC“.)
“23” stretches time like fabric and, like bricks, reshapes the biblical chronology into interlocking blocks. “23” tames irrational numbers. It rounds them like rugged rocks from a quarry.
In the righteous hand of the scribe, the twisted serpentine 23 transforms into a straight rod of rounded numbers such as 25, 70, 300, 490, 500, and 1800. It makes sense of it all; it brings order out of chaos.
Hidden in plain sight
Because 23 was associated with an elite priesthood, it was not meant for everyone to know. It was meant for priests and scribes, initiates into the Enochian tradition. As instructed, ‘the key of 23’ was hidden and sealed.
And thou, Daniel, close the words, and seal the book to the time of the end; until many are taught, and knowledge is increased. Dan. 12:4 Brenton Septuagint Translation
But how was it to be hidden and sealed?
Apparently, priests and scribes took this command quite literally. They sealed it within the Bible itself. They veiled it within the many numeric lists and customized chronologies. It was so well hidden that after the dispersion of 70 AD, it was soon forgotten altogether.
The author has concluded that those of old, both Babylonian and Hebrew, worked out the end of their era to be 6 and 1 BC. The internal evidence itself leads to this conclusion. However, most of what is said here remains true no matter what date is set for the Exodus or Christ.
Outline of Chapter One:
 Chapter One: What the prophets say about “23”
 Multiples of 23 are frequently found with the arithmetic of prophetic utterances
 New Testament examples
 23000 living and dead
 The Joining of the three ‘Joinings’, לָּוֶה ,דָּבַק ,צָמַד
 Key of 23: Known, yet unknown
 New Age, New Datum
 Mathematical Language predates Babel and the Flood
Chapter One: What the prophets say about “23”
Multiples of 23 are frequently found with the arithmetic of prophetic utterances. Some may be coincidental, but indeed not all.
This was first discussed in a video about the "Abraham Accord" in August 2020.
There is only a small number of numeric prophecies in the Bible. Here is a list of numeric utterances with multiples of 23.
 2300 (23 x 100) of Daniel 8 (expressed as “evenings and mornings”)
 483 (23 x 21) of Daniel 9 (expressed as “69 weeks”)
 Prophecy of Dan. 9 is predicated upon the previous 69 years from 605 to 536 BC but is called “70 years”. ’69 = 70′; this is explained shortly
 “…the 1335th day” of Dan.12. The text does not say, “1335 days” but “touches upon the 1335th day”. In typical BookofJubilees style, this means ‘1334 full days, plus part of the next. (1334 is 23 x 58)
 1260 is already converted from 1242 (69 x 18) (Rev. 11:3; 12:6)
 Examples: from the Flood to 27/29 AD are 1242 x 2 yrs, which converts to either 2520 or 2700 yrs (= 7 and 7.5 x 360 — links the 40 days of Flood with 40 days of Christ in the wilderness? From Creation to 27 AD, are 23 x 180 & 60 x 69. And, from decree/return from exile in 538/7 BC to decree/return from exile in 1947/8 is also 1242 + 1242 yrs, or expanded to 574/3 BC of Ezek. 40.)
More obscure examples:
 ‘Seven’ with 430 (437 = 23 x 19). (I.e., ‘7 + 390 + 40’ of Ezek. 3:16;4:4,6. See endnote.)
 Ezekiel began his symbolic siege of Judah on the 391st day. 391 (23 x 17) is often chronologically paired with 390. Example: It took one year for the earth’s destruction by water, but in one day, fire destroyed Sodom, which occurred 391 and 390 years later
Note: Terah's extra 60 years. The alternative extra 60 of Terah is ignored in this article in order to see the basic To create these patterns while maintaining multiples of primenumber 23 demonstrates a mastery of math. Here is an example that illustrates both the +60 of Terah and the '7 + 390 + 40' of Ezekiel. Arphaxad was born two years after the Flood and seven after the death of Lamech (at 777). Isaac is born 390 after Arphaxad and marries at 40. Thus, 7 + 390 + 40. With the alternative extra 60 years of Terah (Acts 7:2), 430 becomes 490 years and is thus 1274 from Lamech's birth. (364 x 3.5 = 1274 with Lamech's son Noah born at 182, that is, half364.) Without this 60 there are instead 1274 years from Lamech to the marriage of Esau, son of Isaac! 3240 to 1966 BC. See chart for 3240 and 1966 (MT) = 1751 (LXX/SP/NT) BC to 1446 and 1406 BC.
 LXX reading of Ezek. 4 instead has 150/190 and 230 days! Does he mean 150 + 190 + 40, or just 190 + 40? Either way, 230 appears. (Ezekiel is repeatedly called “son of Adam בֶּן־אָדָם,” and according to the LXX, the original “son of Adam” was born 230 years after creation, whereas the MT has 130, that is, 1/3rd of MT’s “390”. The LXX, therefore, may be an attempt to maintain the בֶּן־אָדָם theme. Curiously, from the Seth of LXX to the Adam of MT are 1150 of Dan.8.)
(On his “left” side) And thou shalt lie upon thy left side, and lay the iniquities of the house of Israel upon it, according to the number of the hundred and fifty days during which thou shalt lie upon it: and thou shalt bear their iniquities. For I have appointed thee their iniquities for a number of days, for a hundred and ninety days: so thou shalt bear the iniquities of the house of Israel.
(On his “right” side) And thou shalt accomplish this, and then shalt lie on thy right side, and shalt bear the iniquities of the house of Juda forty days: I have appointed thee a day for a year. Brenton LXX Translation
New Testament examples
 “276” (23 x 12) of Acts 27:37. It appears that Paul includes this information and incidentals such as “Castor and Pollux” because he sensed that the shipwreck and deliverance was a reallife parable of the future of the world and God’s people. This is why the strange prophecy in Acts 27:31. Counting, measuring, and time often overlap in symbolism (Rev. 11:13)
 The “46 years” of temple construction
 There are exactly 100 priestly cycles in 46 years, which equals 50 priestly years
They replied, “It has taken fortysix years to build this temple, and you are going to raise it in three days?” (John 2:20; also see John 8:57)
John wrote the Book of Revelation and is no stranger to numeric symbolism, for example, the “153 fish” of John 21:11.
“46 years”: The evidence for an intentional connection to 23 years is strong. There are 46 years (23 x 2) from the Exodus/tabernacle to when Israel rested from war (see chart). And from this 46 years to the 46 years of John happen to span 46 x 31 years. (‘1446/5 BC to 1400/1399 BC‘ unto ’20/19 BC to 27/28 AD’.)
There are 1380 years from when the land rested from war unto Herod’s temple (1400/1399 to 20/19 BC). This is an important observation when the Seder Olam Rabbah is discussed later.
Behold the Lamb of God!
Thus, the Exodus to Christ converts from 1472 to 1600 years, that’s ’40 x 40′ to when Christ went into the desert 40 days, just as Israel did, “a day for each year of their sin,” Num. 14:34; Ezek. 4. (Also, see 3680 years from Jarod; converts to 4000.)
Christ died three years after His announcement that He would raise a ruined temple in three days (John 2:20). Therefore, Christ died 49 years from when the temple began to be built, a jubilee that culminates in the 50th year. (46 converts to 50. John 8:57.)
23000 living and dead
The number “23000” in Numbers 3:39 and 1 Corinthians 10:8 stands out. As we will explore, “23” represents a priestly number that corrects wrongs and straightens what is crooked. It’s the mathematical equivalent of an animal sacrifice, which is crucial when people are far from the temple. According to the censuses taken in 1445 BC and 1407 BC (precisely ‘half77’ years apart), the number of Levites decreased from 22000 to 23000 (Numbers 3:39; 26:62).
Just before the second census, a plague killed “24000” people. However, Paul refers to this number as “23000” in 1 Corinthians 10:8. This plague was the final one on that doomed “generation” (Deuteronomy 2:14; Numbers 26:6265). Phinehas, a Levite, halted the plague. Subsequently, God established a “covenant of peace” with Phinehas, granting him “a lasting priesthood” (Numbers 25).
The Joining of the three ‘Joinings’, לָּוֶה ,דָּבַק ,צָמַד
Let us calculate the dead and the living.
“22000 dead” Levites (Num. 26:6265) joined with the “24000 dead” at Peor, plus the “23000 living” Levites equals 69000. (46000 + 23000 = 23000 x 3).
With that numeric in mind, ponder the “joining צָמַד” of the two adulters by the spear of Phinehas, Num. 25:59. Remember that most who died that day were from the tribe of Simeon, Levi’s closest brother. Levi joined Simeon under a curse that involved the rape of their sister for 460 years (MT) before the Exodus. But here, the curse is reversed. The Simeonites die joined in sexual sin in contradistinction to Levi, who is released from the curse by an act of righteousness.
Moreover, the name Levi means “joined לָּוֶה”! According to the LXX/SP/NT, the joining/conception of Simeon and Levi occurred 299 (23 x 13) years before the joining with the Midianites women and the conquest of Canaan (1706,5 BC to 1407,6 BC).
And she conceived again, and bare a son; and said, Now this time will my husband be joined unto me, because I have born him three sons: therefore was his name called Levi. Gen. 29:34
Is the average of these numbers (22000 and 24000) and 23000 the reason Paul said: “23000 died” rather than 24000?
Was it an acknowledged midrash מִדְרָשׁ at the time?
As said, “460 years” is linked to sexual perversion in the biblical chronology, such as the sins of the watchers in the days of Jarod, and here again with the Midianite women (Enoch 6; Num. 25). There are 460 years from this incident unto Solomon’s palace. It was constructed both for himself and the foreign women whom he “joined דָּבַק himself to in love” (1Kings 7:8; 9:10; 11:125). (Enoch 10:10 appears to mean that the life span of the 200 watchers will be cut short from “500 years” to presumably 460.)
This is now the third Hebrew word that means “to join,” דָּבַק ,צָמַד ,לָּוֶה, and all three join by multiples of 23, that is, “23 x 13” and “23 x 20” just like Solomon’s construction period of ‘7 + 13 = 20 years’. Moreover, both censuses and Solomon’s construction begin and end ‘in the 2nd and 8th month’, (1Kings 6:377:1). (The Levities were numbered “30 days and older”, thus tying the two censuses to the 2nd and 8th month, Num. 1:18; 3:39).
Double brackets around a doomed generation
Paul’s “23000” likely involved two incidents of idolatry merged as one, which is outside this study’s scope. But briefly, the 3000 killed by the Levites in Exodus 32 and the 22000 Levites of the Census commence the generation under God’s wrath and conclude it with the 24000 of Peor and 23000 of the second census of Levites. Phinehas reverses the damage his grandfather Aaron did when the 3000 died. The priesthood and highpriesthood are justified to continue as a lasting priesthood. The resulting numeric is telling.
 3000 + 22000 = 25000, (the expansion of 23000. 25 is 5 x 5)
 This total (25000) plus the 24000 at Peor equals 49000 (a significant sacred number. 49 ix 7 x 7)
 49000 + 23000 = 72000. (Another sacred number; half144000. 72000 is also 200 x 360 and may hint at the sexual sin of the 200 watchersangels that fell according to Enoch 6; Gen. 6. Note the ‘144000 redeemed undefiled virgins’ of Rev. 7:4.)
 Or counted in reverse are 69000 + 3000 = 72000
 Paul’s helper, Luke, records 3000 saved at Pentecost (Acts 2:41), and the “Royal Priesthood” began. This is an obvious parallel to Ex. 32. 72000 + 3000 = 75000. (Recall that 69000 can convert to 70000 or 75000). Acts 4:4 makes 77000
 Luke’s genealogy also has 75 generations to Christ and 77 including Christ and “God” (Luke 3:2327)
The “4600 Levites” of David’s census at Hebron (1Chron. 12:26)
The “4600 Levites” were counted about 400 years after 1407 BC when the Levites were numbered at “23000”.
 “23000” is 4600 x 5
One might even say that the “4600 Levites” here can be added to the previous “23000 Levites” to total the very symbolic number of 27600, (’10 x 2300′ + ‘2 x 2300′ = ’12 x 2300′, like the ’10 + 2’ tribes of Israel and Judah, 1Kings 13:30,31).
Next, after listing the Levites at 4600 is 3700 of the family of Aaron, the grand total in the Census thus far is 22200. Next comes the “22” of the faithful high priest Zadok, which now totals 22222. This signals that “22” is the priestly variable in the list.
And added up to Benjamine are 25200 (70 x 360), and to Ephraim is 46000.
“Men of Issachar”: Initiates into the Enochian tradition
Then there is Issachar, “men who understood the times and knew what Israel should do.” They numbered “200” (1Chron. 12:32).
Traditionally, they were timekeepers. They understood the motions of the sun, moon, and stars. They saw themselves as replacements for the “200” that rebelled in the days of Jarod (Enoch 6). Furthermore, they memorialized this fact in the previous list. There, Isshacar happens to number ‘145600’, which is 364 x 400 — thus connecting themselves to the 364day year of the Enoch scribal tradition (1Chron. 67).
We do not have time to go through the lists in the Bible, but clearly, they were rounded in favor of mathematical patterns. It was a puzzle for the initiated. They told a story, not merely dry facts.
From these lists and other clues, David’s infamous census occurred 25 years into his reign ‘when Satan rose up against Israel”, 1Chron. 21. This was 986 BC, 460 years after the Exodus, literally or idealistically. The most obvious clue to this is 1Chron. 23:24. It implies that they began to build the temple “20 years” later (986 to 966 BC).
From Satan, in the garden of Eden (LXX 5494 BC Creation) to 986 BC is 4508 years, which converts to 4900. This is the same length that the rest of the ‘Satans’ (Accusers) would be bound, Enoch 10:12. And another 490 + 490 to the birth of Christ and his census (Luke 2) for 120 jubilees.
Note: The Book of 1Chronicles usually rounds digits into even numbers. 22200+22 is an example.
Key of 23: Known, yet unknown
It appears likely that the key of 23 was well known within the elite inner circle of scholars from at least Daniel until the Apostle Paul. The Babylonians were also aware of it.
Both groups considered the key of 23 as recovered knowledge that existed before the Flood from the days of Enoch. (Enoch went by another name in Babylon.)
New Age, New Datum
Moreover, both Jews and Babylonian scholars evidently had the same terminus post quem for the end of their age. Both groups determined the end of that age long ago to be 6 BC and 1 BC (although at times expressed as 5 and 0). No wonder the Magi knew the importance of so small a sign as a star appearing at that time.
Mathematical Language predates Babel and the Flood
The various chronologies of Biblical and Babylonian scholars follow the same rules and, because of this, are compatible. They interweave with one another.
The key of 23 is the cryptic framework upon which every verse in the Bible hangs, as flesh does on bone.
Outline of Chapter Two:
 Chapter Two: How the priestly, lunar, 360, and 364day years convert with 23
 Covenants from Adam to Sinai thread together with multiples of 23 (Masoretic Text)
 Creating order out of chaos
 The logical outcomes of “23 = 25”
 360Calendar and “23 x 3
 364Calendar and “23 x 13″(299)
 391 solar years equals “23 x 31” lunar years
 The Great Year of Precession is “49 x 23 x 23”
 The miracle of the 4th day of Creation
 “Residual 23”
 From 1406 BC to Christ
Chapter Two: How the priestly, lunar, 360, and 364day years convert with 23
Note: It cannot be stressed enough that it is the specific multiples of 23 that are important. For example, a burial place is purchased for Sarah for "400 shekels" (Gen. 23:15)  indicative of the prophesied "400 years in Egypt". 1814 to 1446 BC is 368 and converts to 400 years  as explained next.
About the above chart: To maintain the primal chronology, this article ignores the alternative extra 60 of Terah of Acts 7:2. At any rate, the date of Creation less the LXX/SP/NT of 215, plus the 60 of Terah as opted by some chronologers such as Bishop Usher, instead put the Conquest 2553 years after Creation. 2553 is 23 x 111 (69 x 37). And from Jarod, 23 x 91. From Lamech 23 x 73, and the Flood 23 x 39 (299 x 3).
Thus, the 2303/1BCFlood can convert to 2306 BC according to the rules explained shortly. That’s 2300 to 6 and 1 BC. Moreover, this does not alter the 1380year difference from LXX Creation that moves in tandem with MT, which in this case would be 5339 BC instead of 5494, and is (69 x 57) to Conquest with the birth of Seth 23 x 23 x 7.
Covenants from Adam to Sinai thread together with multiples of 23 (Masoretic Text)
In the below chart, calculate the number of internal combinations of multiples of 23squared (excluding the LXX). (“23 x 23” and “23 x 23 x 2” both occurs twice, and “23 x 23 x 3” occur once.)
Also, observe how often multiples of 13, 15, 17, and 19 occur internally. (We discuss the importance of these combinations later.) This underscores the fact that the appearance of multiples of 23 is not what’s important, but rather the specific multiples of 23 and where.
Naturally, multiples of 23 can appear randomly. But the frequency and combinations of 23 exhibit intention. For example, 1656 to the Flood converts to 1800, thus 2300 to Shem’s death. It’s the weaving of specific 23’s with other cycles, such as generations of 40, 70, and 100, or with jubilees, etc., that’s ingenious.
Note: Residual 23 that is discussed later. 460 to Jarod equals 500, and 69 x 6 to Lamech equals 420. However, '500 + 420' in combination is 920, which in turn equals 1000 years  an important timespan in that it stems from Creation! From Lamech to when Israel rested from war is 80 x 23, which converts to 2000. Thus, 1000 + 2000 years from when God rested on the 7th day to when Israel rested from war! "A day is as a thousand years", 2Pet. 3:8. 1446 BC is a pillar date  a new datum. 1446 BC less 46 years (46 = 50) becomes as 1396 BC, and thus 2990 (23 x 130) to 1406 BC, which converts again to 3000. (299 = 300). Residual 23's take on a life of their own.
Creating order out of chaos
What if unruly numbers such as “276” (Acts 27:37) could transform into something identifiable such as ‘seven generations of 40 years, ‘four generations of 70’, or ‘three generations of 100 years’? In turn, numbers like 280 and 300 might form still larger blocks of time with acknowledged symbolic value — a code — a language.
The ancients knew the language. Their lists and chronologies are the ancient equivalents of computer code.
 23 regular solar years equal 8400 days with 23/40th of a day remaining (or rounded to 7/12th of a day). And there are 8400 days in 25 priestly years
 Therefore 23 solar years can convert to 25 priestly years
 The small remainder of 23/40th (or 7/12th) of a day is accounted for within the conversion — as we shall demonstrate
 Example: “276” becomes 7 x 40 with exactly seven days remaining
 Example: 460 yrs from Creation to Jarod (when the angels transgressed) equals 1000 priestly cycles of 168 days, which is 500 Priestly years (Enoch 6:6)
 Therefore 23 solar years can convert to 25 priestly years
Their solar year was the same as our modern Gregorian of 365.2425 (See Part One: How the solar 360 and 364day calendar works)
Logical outcomes of “23 = 25”
360Calendar and “23 x 3
Because three times “8400” equals 25200 days, this means that ‘3 x 23’ (69 years) is the same as 70 years on the 360 calendar (without leap months).
25200/360 = 70
 Therefore 69 solar years can convert to 70 prophetic years on the 360day calendar without its leap months (as well as the said 25 x 3 priestly years)
 The remainder, therefore, is 23/40th (or 7/12th) of a day times three
 Daniel 9:2427 demonstrates this best and explains Ezra’s 12day delay (Ezra 7:8;8:31)
 23/40 x 21 (cycles of 23) = 12.075 days
The Enoch year of 364 days also converts a multiple of 23 into a symbolic number.
364Calendar and “23 x 13″(299)
The Enoch calendar has a year of 364 days, with four seasons s of 13 weeks. Seven and thirteen have come to symbolize perfection and imperfection/curse, respectively. Found in combination, it depicts reconciliation. The 23, in combination with the 13, maintains the symbolism.
Unlike “23” and “60”, 299 is not the closest approach to an exact integer. Instead, 294 years is.
294 is six jubilees, and every 294 solar years, there is a surprisingly nearperfect integer of 293 (292.9999). This is likely why the Book of Jubilees (4:21) has Enoch in heaven for 294 years rather than just one as per the Book of Enoch (Enoch 81:6). Both books knew the rules but approached them differently.
Example in MT: from Creation to the Exodus is 2668 years (4114 to 1446 BC). 2668/23 = 116. Because 23 converts to 25 Priestly years, thus 116 x 25 = 2900. “2900” plus the 40 years to the Conquest in 1406 BC equals 2940 years, which is 60 jubilees.
 23 x 13 solar years (299) converts to 300 prophetic years on the 364day calendar (without its leap weeks)
 The remainder is 23/40th (or 7/12th) of a day times 13. This equals the 7.5 days of Creation. (The switch from evening to morning in the calendar of Enoch creates the extra halfday)
 This explains why Enoch lived 365 instead of 364 years. 365 years of 364 days are 364 solar years. Thus, Enoch lived 300 (299) years after the birth of his son; 65 + 299 (300) = 364 (365), Gen. 5:2123. The Book of Enoch also implies this, Enoch 81:6
 It explains the twoyear chronological oddity at the Flood with the 600 of both Noah and Shem: It allows the code also to read 299 x 2
 And the 299 x 6 from Lamech to the Exodus becomes 5 x 360 years (with “437“ x 2 more to Creation, and “391“ x 2 to the Flood. We look at 391 and 437 next.
So far, the uneven numbers 23, 69, and 299 can be converted to the even and rounded numbers 25, 70, and 300. (The “300” appears often, a flexible number within the Babylonian base 60 system.)
So far, we have looked at the solar calendars.
But what about the purely lunar year?
The lunar year, unadjusted by leap months, is still used throughout the Arab world today.
391 solar years equals “23 x 31” lunar years
It happens that 23 x 17 (391 solar years) equals almost precisely 403 (13 x 31) lunar years (without leap months). This astonishing fact did not escape the notice of the ancients. This will be explained in future documents (Gen. 11:13, 15.)
But for now, note that “17” is a sacred compound number. It is 7 + 10. (Moreover, 17 years has exactly 230 x 3³ days, less 7²/20² of a day.) And “13 x 31” of the lunar calendar is a cursed number. As said before, whenever 13 and 7 come together, it signifies redemption, a perfecting of the imperfect. And “23” is the priestly power that transforms chaos into order, the serpent into a rod –an essential function in Exile away from temple sacrifices.
 23 x 17 solar years (391) can convert to 403 lunar years (or vice versa). (As explained, ’23 x 17′ also converts to the Priestly year.)
 403 strictly lunar years = 142,809.93 days, which is almost exactly 391 solar years
 365.2425 x 391 = 142,809.8175 days
 Actual difference between the two was nearly nil at around 4206 BC
 365.2425 x 391 = 142,809.8175 days
 142,800 days is also 17 x 8400 days, with ten days remaining — which, as we shall see, is linked to the Day of Atonement on the 10th day, Lev. 16:29
 Therefore, because 17 x 8400 converts to 17 x 25 priestly years (i.e., 425 priestly years), the accursed lunar number of 403 (13 x 31) is tamed into 425
 Example: From the Flood to the destruction of Sodom, 391 years
 For “403 years”, see Gen. 11:13, 15
 391 is usually paired with 390 of Ezek. 4 (13 x 30), and for 437 (‘7 + 390 + 40’ of Ezek. 3:16;4:4,6), see endnote.
 403 strictly lunar years = 142,809.93 days, which is almost exactly 391 solar years
The Great Year of Precession is “49 x 23 x 23”
The ancients, including the Bible, recognized that a day was as a year and a year as a day (Ezek. 4). In a similar vein of thinking, every 72 years equaled a day of Precession. Thus, the Precession of the Equinox was rounded to 72 x 360 years, which is 25920 years. The entire span of 25920 years was considered a “Golden Year” or a “Great Year.”
A jubilee in the Bible is 49 years (7 x 7). Like the jubilees of the Israelites, the Year of Jubilee is also the first year of the next cycle. It happens that 25921 years is 49 x 23 x 23, or 161squared — a most powerful number! And without the “7/12thofaday” remainder, 8400 x 49 x 23 days equals the 25920th year anyway (9466800/365.2425=25919.22 years.) The Great Year is most clearly seen in the Sumerian Tablets of Babylon and intersects with the Biblical chronology at numerous junctures.
The miracle of the 4th day of Creation
The fact that one number — number twentythree — marvelously converts all wild numbers into rounded, tame, straightened numbers, like a serpent into a rod, is surprising.
 23 (23 x 1) years of the 336 Priestlyyear
 69 (23 x 3) of the 360 Propheticyear
 299 (23 x 13) of the 364 Enochianyear
 345 (23 x 15) of Eclipseyear. Converts to 364 eclipse years. See endnote
 391 (23 x 17) of the Lunar year of 354.367066
 437 (23 x 19) cycle of Metonic lunar cal. See endnote
 1495 (23 x 65) of the 365 Egyptianyear
 25920/1 (23² x 7²) years of Precession of the Equinox converts to “The Great Year”
 That 23² x 7² (161²) marks the start of a jubilee at the very end of a “Great Year” evidently was noticed by the ancients as implied by the Sumerian Calendar, explained later
Observations: These cycles show up independently in the Biblical chronology from Creation to the Exodus at least twice each. (This includes 25920/1 years from the Babylonian Flood date of 27366 BC to the Exodus/Tabernacle in 1446/5 BC, and thus 70 x 360 to Abraham in 2166 BC.)
Interestingly, all seven multiples of 23 are odd numbers, and most are 46 years apart.
All this is the product of the constraints of the sun, moon, and stars at Creation.
And God said, “Let there be lights in the vault of the sky to separate the day from the night, and let them serve as signs to mark sacred times, and days and years, and let them be lights in the vault of the sky to give light on the earth.” And it was so.
God made two great lights—the greater light to govern the day and the lesser light to govern the night. He also made the stars. God set them in the vault of the sky to give light on the earth, to govern the day and the night, and to separate light from darkness. And God saw that it was good. And there was evening, and there was morning—the fourth day. Gen. 1:1419
“Residual 23”
The favored position is when the conversion of 23 recreates another 23 — at times taking on a life of its own. This may seem absurd by today’s standards until one realizes that Biblical Chronology is a code compacting large amounts of information.
 Example: From the covenant reiterated to Jacob when he fled from his brother unto the Exodus are 483 years (1929 BC to 1446 BC)
 69 x 7 (483) becomes 490
 Because this added seven years, there are now 483 to Jacob’s wedding (1922 BC), which then becomes 490 with the Key of 23
 And with another seven years for his second wife (1915 BC) results in yet another 483, etc. (Hence why it is called “Risidual 23”.)
From 1406 BC to Christ
The use of 23 also dominated after the Conquest of 1406 BC.
For example, after the division between North and South, the Kingdom of Judah lasted 345 (23 x 15) years, 931 BC to 586 BC. Moreover, 586 BC was a 115year extension (23 x 5) from 701 BC when God delivered King Hezekiah from the Assyrian army. At that time, God also extended the life of Hezekiah “15 years” so that he died 100 years before 586 BC. Notice the multiples of five.
A literal calculation of the Kings of Judah adds exactly 49.5 years and ten days (a jubilee) to the traditional 931 BC for Solomon’s death. But this, too, is accounted for. It’s simply a subchronology. 931 BC, then is instead 981 BC, and ‘966 BC’ (when temple construction began) is now 1016 BC, which is 430 years to the Exodus (1446 BC). This produces three sets of 430 years for a total of 1290 years, 1876 to 1446 to 1016 to 586 BC (Ezek. 4; Dan. 12).
The same is valid with the Book of Judges, such as Jephthah’s “300 years”, that is, 299 (23 x 13) from 1406 BC (Judges 11:26). This “300” also joins the Long Chronology of 12600 years to make 12900 years, (Dan. 12).
We have already mentioned the 483 years (69 x 7) of Daniel 9 to Christ.
Outline of Chapter Three:
 Chapter Three: A brief overview of the Long and Short Chronology and How MT/LXX/SP (Bk. of Jubilees) unanimously utilize 23
 Understanding Competition Rules
 The Septuagint (LXX) Chronology
 Chronological Variations and Covenant Connections
 Biblical Chronology and Its MirrorLike Structure
 Samaritan Pentateuch, Book of Jubilees, and Their Chronologies
 The Flood: Comparing SP, MT, and LXX
 Creation to Flood: Book of Jubilees and SP
 Adam’s Fall and the Flood
 The Flood Year and 1 BC/AD
Chapter Three: The Consensus Use of ’23’ in MT, LXX, SP, and the Book of Jubilees:
A Comparative Study of Long and Short Chronologies
Two frameworks in the labyrinthine landscape of Biblical chronology stand out, as propounded by the MT, LXX, and SP: the Short and Long Chronologies. The former operates on a direct counting principle—each patriarch’s age at their son’s birth is sequentially tallied, offering an intuitive approach to chronology.
Conversely, the Long Chronology presents a generational accumulation. From Adam to Moses exist 26 patriarchs—or 27, if we consider the Kenan cited in Luke 3:3637. Here, each patriarch’s age at death is summated consecutively.
As an example, Adam lived for 930 years and Seth for 912, yielding a cumulative sum of 1842 years. According to this expansive framework, the interval from Adam’s creation to Seth’s demise totals 1842 years. As will be detailed in upcoming articles, this figure breaks down to 1840 plus a twoyear “Flood Factor.” Specifically, 1840 is a multiple of 230 and 8. (The subtle implications of the “Flood Factor” will be elucidated in future contributions.)
What captivates within the Long Chronology is a recurring theme around the numbers 23 and 230. Each numerical entity is magnified by a factor of ten, creating a harmonious linkage and a unifying symmetry between the Short and Long Chronologies.
The SP lays out its chronological markers with striking clarity. Its Long Creation date is exactly 9200 to its short. (13400/13998 unto 4200 /3998 BC.) 9200 converts to 10,000 years. SP also has 1842 to Enosh, and thus LongEnosh to ShortAdam is 7360, which converts to 8000 years, and thus to 9800 to death of ShortNoah (SP).
From the creation of Adam to the passing of Moses and Aaron in the MT, the long chronology posits a total of 12,600 years, covering the years 14,006 BC to 1,406 BC. This figure intriguingly serves as a tenfold amplification of Revelation 12:6. Including the 460 years attributed to Kenan, the Creation year extends to 14,466 BC.
Enosh, Shem’s son, was thus born either in 12,624 BC or 13,084 BC. Enosh (אֱנוֹשׁ) signifies a second ‘man,’ paralleling Adam in nomenclature, as both mean ‘man.’ They rank as the tenth and eighth patriarchs preceding the Flood, mirroring the Sumerian chronological traditions that enumerate ten or eight names from the first Man to their Noah figure. Notably, the time spans from Enosh at 12,624 and 13,084 BC to Creation in 4,114 BC are divisible by 230, further substantiating the numerical motifs under discussion.
Footnote: More importantly, there are 23 x 390 and 430 of Moses and Ezekiel 4, from Adam and Enosh to 4114 BC, but this is just a brief overview. The line can be traced through the brother of Moses as well. Aaron was 3.5 years older than his brother. These three years, plus the twoyear anomaly at the Flood puts the date of the Flood when Arphaxad was born at 4836/1 BC. This equals 70 jubilees to the Conquest in 1406 BC and converts to 4900 (100 jubilees) to 6 and 1 BC (5 and 0). (Or add to this the 460 of Kenan and is 230 x 23 to 6 and 1 BC, or 460 x 23 back around to itself in the "BC/AD Mirror", etc. Focusing on Abraham, born at 2435 BC in the Long Chronology, he stands seven generations before Moses. The span from Abraham to the 1406 BC Conquest is 21 multiplied by 49, and to the 4836 BC Flood is 49 multiplied by 49. The BC/AD Mirror loops this back to 4600 years in line with Abraham's 2166 BC birth in the Short Chronology. Moreover, 2435 BC leads to 1446 BC when multiplied by 23 and 43, equating to 2.5 times 430 years, or precisely 430 years to Abraham's calling in the Short Chronology.
Understanding Competition Rules
In any competition, ground rules are essential. Without them, determining the winner becomes a challenge.
The Septuagint (LXX) Chronology
The LXX, SP, and MT seem to have diverged from a common source, which explains their compatibility. For instance, according to the LXX, Creation occurred 1380 years earlier than the MT version. This 1380 years equates to 230 multiplied by 60. Furthermore, in the LXX, Seth’s birth happens 230 years postCreation.
For a detailed understanding of the LXX chronology, refer to “THE CASE FOR THE SEPTUAGINT’S CHRONOLOGY IN GENESIS 5 AND 11” by Henry B. Smith Jr (Associates for Biblical Research), published in 2018. Smith’s work, which includes the recently rediscovered Liber Antiquitatum Biblicarum, is highly commendable.
Smith accounts for the additional 60 years of Terah in his work, but this doesn’t alter the “1380 years” difference at Creation. The LXX’s dates for Creation (5554 or 5494 BC) and the MT’s (4174 or 4114 BC) remain 1380 years apart. This 60year discrepancy and the 215year difference in the duration of the stay in Egypt are merely variations within the chronology.
Chronological Variations and Covenant Connections
Consider the 460year period that parallels Jarod’s 460 years: From the Abram covenant of the pieces, just before Ishmael’s birth (minus the 215year variant), there are 460 years to the Phinehas covenant (1407 BC) and conquest (1406 BC), as per Genesis 15. However, the MT records 460 years from Jacob’s death and his prophecy about future inheritance to the allocation of the inheritance in the 7th year when the “land rested from war” (14001399 BC).
This period is 46 years from 1446/5 BC (Joshua 14). On the other hand, the LXX records 23 x 8 years to 1407/6 BC from his prophecy over his two sons. For more details, refer to the “Major Threads of CovenantRelated 23’s” chart. The Book of Jubilees also records 460 years from when Abraham was called out of Haran (and Ur).
Biblical Chronology and Its MirrorLike Structure
Like Hebrew poetry, Biblical chronology follows a mirrorlike structure, as also seen in the New Testament’s “Chiasm.” Even prose frequently mirrors one side to the other. The duration of events during the Flood year also follows this pattern. The Bible begins with Creation, places Christ in the center, and concludes with the New Creation, as documented in the Bible’s final two chapters. The chronology and “23” follows the same pattern.
Samaritan Pentateuch, Book of Jubilees, and Their Chronologies
The Samaritan Pentateuch (SP) places Creation in 4415 BC, with a 460year period leading to Jarod. It also accounts for the 2year Flood anomaly.
The Book of Jubilees sets Creation in 3856 BC, marking 50 Jubilees to 1406 BC. It extensively uses cycles of 23 and 49. For instance, from Abram’s call out of (Ur) and Haran to the Exodus, there are 460 years. This creates a residual effect as Moses’s life is divided into three sets of 40 years (Jub. 12). This might have been the author’s starting point, from which he
worked both forward and backward in time. The author contrasts Jarod’s 460 years, symbolizing disobedience, with Abraham’s 460 years, representing obedience to God.
The Book of Jubilees’ chronology from Abraham to the Exodus seems to extend the SP (and LXX) chronologies, given the 23conversion.
Footnote: Deciphering the Book of Jubilees The Book of Jubilees might have used the 115year period that covers Abraham's death to Jacob's wedding (69 years), and then to when Jacob and his family moved to Egypt (46 years), totaling 115 years (according to MT, LXX, SP). Chronological Strings and Anomalies This specific 23year sequence likely started at Noah's death (21082106 BC, MT or 18911889 LXX), with 115 years to Abraham's death and another 115 years to the first two years of Famine when Jacob symbolically died (Gen. 42:38; 45:26, 18781876 BC, MT or 16631661 LXX). Interestingly, the 2year anomaly at the Flood aligns perfectly with the unusual twoyear delay when entering Egypt (Gen. 11:10; 45:6). Jacob's Birth and the Exodus Jacob's birth in the LXX/SP/NT occurred 345 years before the Exodus (23 x 15, which equals 115 x 3). This 345 converts to 375, adding 30 years to the 430 in 1876 BC. This creates the residual460 of Jubilees, converting 1876 BC to 1906 BC, marking when Abraham was called out of Haran (and Ur), according to Jub. 12. The period from Isaac's birth to Jacob's death spans 69 x 3 years, with an additional 69 x 6 years to 1445 BC (MT). The author of Jubilees likely extended the timeline using the effects of the 345 and 115 in combination. Conversions and Justifications For instance, 115 converts to 125, justifying Isaac's birth when Abraham was both 100 and 111, as per Jubilees! Jubilees adds an extra year to make 111, which allows both 59 and 69 years to Jacob's birth. "69" equals 23 x 3. Jacob's Age and Significant Numbers Jacob was '69 years old' when he fled to Haran, which is a conspicuous '69 + 69' for a man whose life revolves around multiples of seven years. Remember that 69 converts to 70. Jacob returned to Canaan 276 years before the Exodus (1446/1445 BC) and later moved to Egypt with his family (1685 and 1681 BC, two dates!) approximately 276 years before the Phinehas Covenant and Conquest of 1407/6 BC. Therefore, in 1685 and 1681 BC, Jacob was simultaneously 126 and 130, possibly combining a perfect and imperfect number intentionally. Abraham's Birth and Egypt Entry From Abraham's birth to the first time Jacob's sons entered Egypt spans 299 years, and 300 years until they all moved to Egypt (299 can convert to 300). This might also be part of the author's thought process.
The Flood: Comparing SP, MT, and LXX
The difference at the Flood between the MT, LXX, and SP is 780 (13 x 60) and 650 (13 x 50), respectively, emphasizing the accursed number. The SP and the Book of Jubilees demonstrate remarkable mathematical ingenuity, deserving more recognition than they typically receive.
Creation to Flood: Book of Jubilees and SP
The period from Creation to the Flood in both the Book of Jubilees and the SP is the same, 1307 years. The Book of Jubilees provides a key to understanding this span. It suggests a day is like a year. From Creation to the 47th day of the year when the Floods came, there are 1260 + 47 years (Jub. 3:17; 5:23; Rev. 12:6; Enoch 75:1).
Adam’s Fall and the Flood
Moreover, the Book of Jubilees places Adam’s fall seven years after Creation. From that point, it’s 700 years to Noah and 1300 years to the Flood, to the exact day. This timeline combines perfect and imperfect numbers once again.
The Flood Year and 1 BC/AD
Interestingly, the Flood year (2549/8 BC) in the Book of Jubilees equates to ‘seven times 364 years’ leading up to 1 BC/AD.
Outline of Chapter Four:
 Chapter Four: The Great BC/AD Mirror and Residual Days
 Examples of Mirroring
 Creation and Conversion
 Genealogical Patterns
 Long Chronology and Conquest
 The Flood (and Priestly Cycle)
 Shem and the Conquest
 ’72 x 23′ Years from Creation to Noah in All Manuscripts
 Samaritan Pentateuch and 10,000Years (And Residual 23)
 Book of Enoch as the Original SourceChronology
 Babylonians, Egyptians, Hindus, Aztecs, and Jewish
 Seder Olam and the Excellence of Compression
 Pharisaic Seder Olam Rabbah (Traditional Jewish Chronology)
 Wrong Motivation, Strange Outcome
 The Road of Departure is the Road of Return
 Seder Olam and Book of Enoch
 The Land Rested from War
Chapter Four: The Great BC/AD Mirror and Residual Days
The dates before and after the Flood, as well as the Exodus, form a mirror. However, we’re focusing on the broader picture. As mentioned earlier, ancient civilizations, including the Babylonians, perceived the end of their age to be 6 and 1 BC. This period represents the Great Mirror, where past events repeat in reverse order.
Examples of Mirroring
We can provide numerous examples. We’ve already noted another type of mirror: the Long Chronology of 14006 and 14466 BC shadows the 1446 BC and 1406 BC of the Exodus and Conquest.
Moses was 120.5 years old at his death. This halfyear could extend back to Creation. But was the Flood and Creation in the Spring or Autumn? Scholars rightly disagree, as the text intentionally leaves it ambiguous.
Creation and Conversion
For instance, consider Creation in 4114 BC Spring or 4115 BC Autumn. The period from 4114/5 BC to 1407/6 AD equals 5520 years. 5520 equals 23 x 24, which breaks down to 2760 + 2760, convertible to 6000 years. Hence, the LXX Creation of 5494/5 BC to 1406/5 BC spans 6900 years, convertible to 7000 years (or 7500). Given God’s creation in six days and rest on the 7th, and the concept that “A day is as a thousand years,” the meaning of the 6000 and 7000 years becomes clear (2 Peter 3:8).
Genealogical Patterns
This explains why there are 60 and 75 generations to Christ in Matthew and Luke’s genealogies, respectively. This pattern was wellknown back then. Matthew starts at Abraham, and Luke ends at Adam, in two different linear directions, thereby imitating the mirror with 115 {23 x 5} generations between them. “4000 to +7500” equals 11500, “115 generations”, and so on.
Long Chronology and Conquest
Consider the Long Chronology 14472t/1n – 14465t/4n BC (i.e., the seven or 7.5year max spread, symbolic of the seven days of Creation, to be explained later). 23 x 690 years later equals 1399t/1400n – 1406t/7n AD, which mirrors the 7 & 7.5 years of Conquest with its first Sabbatical year of “rest.” “23 x 690” converts to 7 & 7.5 times 2300! (Therefore, from Enosh, 6 x 2300.)
Flood and Priestly Cycle
Another example: The Flood, 2458/9 BC to AD 1406/7, equals 23 x 168 — 168 is a Priestly cycle. 23 x 168 (69 x 56) converts to 4200 years or as 80 jubilees!
Shem and the Conquest
Note that Shem was born exactly 1150 years (23 x 50) before the Conquest of 1406 BC (Dan. 8). Many in biblical times believed Shem to be Melchizedek. We now have massive interconnecting blocks of time ready to intersect with the larger timespans of the Sumer tablets.
’72 x 23′ Years from Creation to Noah in All Manuscripts
The Samaritan Pentateuch (SP), Septuagint (LXX), and Masoretic Text (MT) all record 1656 years from Creation to Noah’s birth, death, and the Flood, respectively. However, the following example primarily focuses on the MT, which is the version most commonly found in contemporary Bibles.
In the MT, there are 23 x 72 years from Creation to the Flood
The Genesis chronology has precisely 1656 years from Creation to the Flood.
The chronology in Genesis precisely records 1656 years from Creation to the Flood. This period equates to 23 x 72 years. Interestingly, “1656” is also six times “276,” which is the number of people saved from Paul’s shipwreck during a storm, as mentioned in Acts 27:37.
Therefore:
 23 converts to 25 priestly years, thus 1656 = 1680 years (and 1680 years, in turn, is 336 x 5 years of years)
 69 also converts to 70 prophetic years (of 360 days), thus 1656 = 1800 years,
 (and 1800 years, in turn, is 360 x 5 years of years)
 And 1656 is 23 ‘days’ of Precession because each day equals 72 years (1656 = 23 x 72 years)
These large numbers form the fundamental building blocks of our chronology. Thus, chaotic numbers are tamed to interconnect with all other numeric blocks easily.
Samaritan Pentateuch and 10,000Years (And Risidual 23)
Consider the Samaritan Pentateuch (SP). The span from its Long to Short Creations is 9200 years, which converts to 10,000 years (adds 800 years with the Key of 23). SP counts the zero at Christ as if a year. 13400 to 4200 BC causes 13400 to expand 800 years to read as 14200 BC, which is 27600 back to its self in the mirror to AD 13400! In turn, 27600 (23 x 1200) expands to 28000 or 30000 by adding 400 or 2400 more years. Consequently, 4200 BC can now be read as 4600 BC, and so on.
Book of Enoch as the Original SourceChronology
All these calculations were an inevitable outgrowth to the ancients, like a seed at Creation that “produces after its own kind.” It became a competition to create the most lively and meaningful chronology. As discussed in Chapter Five, the Book of Enoch appears to be the rudimentary source of all other chronologies. Other chronologies branched out from it, intending to compress or expand the original.
Babylonians, Egyptians, Hindus, Aztecs, and Jewish
The Babylonians, Egyptians, Hindus, Aztecs, and others expanded the Enoch chronology, while the Jews both compressed and expanded it using their Short and Long chronologies, woven together like a string of DNA. The Masoretic Text (MT) particularly sought to compress — a more difficult task and thus of greater value, at least in their eyes.
Seder Olam and the Excellence of Compression
The Seder Olam (“traditional Jewish chronology”) especially viewed compression as excellence. In discussing Biblical chronology, the Seder Olam followed three principles:
 To assume that the intention of the Biblical author was, wherever possible, to give exact dates
 To assign to each of a series of events the shortest possible duration of time, where necessary, to secure an agreement with the Biblical text
 To adopt the lesser of two possible numbers. (SEDER ‘OLAM RABBAH: Jewish Encyclopedia.com)
Pharisaic Seder Olam Rabbah (Traditional Jewish Chronology)
The Seder Olam was produced around 160 AD — shortly after the Bar Kochba revolt in 135 AD, which is 2300 years after the birth of Abraham and 1150 after David was anointed king (2166 BC to 1016 BC to AD 135).
Bar Kochba was a failed Messiah. The author likely wrote Seder Olam in dispersion to a disillusioned audience. Further, surrounded by the perceived Christian threat, the true date for the Conquest years (14061400 BC) with its apparent implications (1400 years to Messiah) demanded readjustment (cf., Matt. 1:17). But this had to be changed in good conscience, at least before peers. A ‘righteous’ justification for dropping the date of the conquest by 165 years was required (586 BC dropped to 421 BC).
Wrong Motivation, Strange Outcome
Wrongly motivated, Seder Olam demonstrates too much compression at the cost of coherence. Daniel 9, the prophecy of 490 years to the Messiah, became a threat. By changing dates, both the 1400 and the 490 were obliterated. Instead, now “490 years” merely heralded the destruction of Herod’s temple starting at the destruction of Solomon’s temple (423/421 BC to AD 68/70). This compressed the era of Greek rule into a tiny span contrary to actual history.
However, this had an unexpected outcome — perhaps intentional? Perhaps inspirational — inspired by the God of all grace.
The Road of Departure is the Road of Return
Seder Olam’s Creation to Exodus spans 3761 BC to 1313/1311 BC. Now 3761 BC is 138 years short of the actual Creation of 3899 BC. (LXX/SP/NT “215” in Egypt. MT Creation 4114 BC less 215 equals 3899 BC.)
The period from 3899 BC to the Seder Olam Creation of 3761 BC is 138 years (23 x 6). And from the Exodus as 1313/1311 BC to AD 68/70 is 1380 years (23 x 60)!
138 yrs from MT Creation to Seder Olam Rabbah (SOR) Creation
Because 138 is 69 x 2, it can add two years to convert to 140. This may account for the twoyear anomaly carried forward within SOR chronology from its Creation to the fall of the second temple in AD 68/70. 3761 BC thus becomes 3759 BC with the desired effect that there are both 2450 (50 jubilees) and 2448 years unto the SOR Exodus in 1311 BC. Moreover, from 3899 BC to SOR, the dates for Jarod are 598 years, which can add two years to become 600. (299 converts to 300).
Seder Olam and Book of Enoch
The author of the Seder Olam Rabbah probably designed the work for calendrical purposes with the Book of Enoch in mind because by placing their Creation as commencing six days inclusive before the New Year (Elul 25th), it connects the lunar year of 354 (or 355) to the 360 days of the 360calendar to land correctly upon the New Year, and likewise 364 to when the Enoch calendar starts, i.e., ‘on the 4th day of the New Year.
The perfect fit seems more than a coincidence. It demonstrates that the Seder Olam did not ignore other calendars but incorporated them where possible — perhaps including an awareness regarding 138 and 1380 years.
“1380 years to AD 68/70” is compressed from 1500 years
The Seder Olam Exodus as 1313/1311 BC was perhaps compressed from 1500 into 1380 years (120 years) so that 423/421 BC is really 543/541 BC, and their Exodus is actually 1431/3 BC?
543/541 BC is about the time of the Exile’s return and Daniel’s prophecy of 490 years. (More likely, it was initially 539/537 BC using 23 x 58 years instead, and the Exodus precisely 1446 BC. See note.)
The Land Rested from War
Interestingly, the 1380 years from the Exodus to the fall of Jerusalem (890 + 490 = 1380) are mirrored in reverse. Sarah was born on the 40th jubilee. From Sarah’s birth to the Exodus spans 490 years, and thus 1380 years to 432/1 BC, when Jerusalem fell for the first time! Therefore, the sum of 490 + 890 + 490 years from Sarah’s birth produces two 1380year periods by overlapping the 890 years in the middle. The 890 years can also condense to 888 years.
(See the important note on “Mirror Overlap.”) This connection links Sarah twice allegorically with Jerusalem. (Recall that Paul trained as a Pharisee (Phi 3:55), favors the “430” of Gal. 3:17 in Seder Olam, including Gal. 4:2131. Also, remember the symbolic “276” of Paul’s shipwreck as a likely portent of “the end of days,” culminating in the horrific fall of Jerusalem, 276 x 5 = 1380.)
In 1400 BC, “the land rested from war” (1267/5 Seder Olam). Is it a coincidence that construction on Herod’s temple began 1380 years later? Furthermore, after another “46 years” (23 +23), Jesus prophesied its destruction (John 2:1322; cf. Mark 14:58). As a result, there are 1380 years to both its construction and destruction (Seder Olam). Also, from Creation to the “46 years” of John 2:20, there are 1380 x 3 AND 1380 x 4 years! (4114 BC MT and 5494 LXX to AD 27.)
The Jews then responded to him, “What sign can you show us to prove your authority to do all this?”
Jesus answered them, “Destroy this temple, and I will raise it again in three days.”
They replied, “It has taken fortysix years to build this temple, and you are going to raise it in three days?” But the temple he had spoken of was his body. (John 2:1821; also see John 8:57)
Also, there are 1400 yrs from 1406 to 6 BC (1400 is 1380 expanded), thus numerically associating the birth of Herod’s temple with Christ’s birth. (See conjectural note.)
Note: It's hard to know for sure, but perhaps to a Pharisaic scribe, 890 can reverse to 980? Thus we have '490 + (490 + 490) + 490' to Sarah's birth that in turn is 490 x 4 from Creation.
Note: "Mirror Overlap" is another technique of compression found frequently in the Bible. Example: Abraham's life is composed of three main parts, 75 + 25 +75 years so that a generation of 100 years overlaps in the middle. The same for Noah and Shem's "600 years" at the Flood, 500 + 100 + 500; or the 390/290 from Shem/Flood to Abraham/Isaac, 100 + 290 + 100; or Isaac's wedding and death that overlap "four generations of 40 years" from Abraham to Jacob 120 + 40 + 120; or the 80yr overlap at Moses that also produces 160 years, 40 + 40 + 40; and numerous others. The MT "430" versus LXX/SP/NT "215" of the stay in Egypt is just another Mirror Overlap, compressed instead of expanded and recognized as such by competing parties.
Recall that the LXX Creation was 1380 years before the MT.
Conjectural note: The original terminus a quo likely was 539/537 BC exactly. 1380 less the 46 years (when "the land rested" in 1267/1265 BC, Seder Olam, John 2:20), unto the "1335th" year (i.e., 1334 full years, Daniel 12) comes to the terminus ad quem of AD 68/70, and consequently instead expands to precisely 539/537 BC rather than 543/541. (The fall of Babylon, return from Exile, and the prophecy of Daniel 9 are all dated to 539/537 BC.) The Seder Olam is largely an attempt to place the Covenant of Pieces "430 years" before the Exodus. Therefore, observe that 1290 years before the terminus a quo 543/1 BC is the birth of Isaac, according to Seder Olam. (1290 equals 430 x 3.) Thus the "1290" and "1335" of Daniel 12 are both incorporated within the sacred timeline along with the "490" of Daniel 9, with a bonus of 430 x 4 from Jacob to AD 68/70 of Ezekiel 4. Moreover, Sarah was born 490 x 4 from Creation and thus 490 years before the Exodus and 1380 before 543/1 BC! Thus, it appears that the jubilee of the exile was simply omitted (compressed) by the Seder Olam (exile of 586 overlaps the return of 537 BC), with the remaining 1500 years compressed to 1380. The omission of the 49 years is justified because this is exactly how many years the kings of Judah have in excess of the actual span when literally calculated, (i.e., not allowing for overlaps in reigns), (cf. Dan. 9:25). The 49 years can thus be recovered by simply calculating time by adding the reigns of the kings of Judah consecutively (537 to 931 BC) and thereby reach the original 1446 BC for the Exodus via 1Kings 6:1. Moreover, the difference of 135 years between the Conquests in 1406 and 1271 BC might simply be the 116 (of 1334) and 19 of 605 to 586 BC. Thus, the 19 years that span the three exiles were compressed to one event to collectively become the terminus a quo of Daniel 9? I speculate that the 23 was akin to uttering "the Name" out loud and thus was left unspoken and only inferred. This would explain why the original use of 1380 & 1334 was forgotten  it was only verbally transmitted.
“Let nothing be leftover” John 6:12,18
The 23 and 69 do not convert to 25 and 70 evenly. What about the extra days when 1656 is converted to 1680 or 1800 years?
We said earlier:
 23 solar years can convert to 25 priestly years
 The small remainder of 23/40th (or 7/12th) of a day is accounted for within the conversion
This means that in 1656 years, there were exactly 42 days remaining (six weeks). (1656 / 72 = 23. That’s 8400 days times 72, with 7/12th remaining — that is, 7/12 x 72, which equals exactly 42 days (7 x 6).
Events in the Bible are dated from the first day of the month on the lunar and 360 calendars but from the 4th day of the week (when the sun and moon were created) on the Enoch Calendar. These two calendars are separated by 3.5 days (not 3) because the lunar runs from evening to evening, but the solar from morning to morning.
Chapter Five: The Waters of Creation and the Flood
Outline of Chapter Five:
 The Waters of Creation and the Flood
 The Flood According to the 364Calendar of Enoch
 The Flood According to the 360Prophetic Calendar
 Metonic cycles and the Key of 23
 Integrating Leap Months and Weeks in 360 and 364Day Calendars: The Invariability of 336Year Cycles
 Chronological Charts (Also, see Chapter Six for charts)
 Lunar Calendar and 23 Metonic Cycles: Exceptional Accuracy and the “Residual 23”
While modern discussions often focus on when Creation occurred, ancient civilizations were more concerned with its purpose and the causes of cosmic disarray. They tackled these existential questions through advanced calendrical systems, establishing a cosmic dialogue between humans and celestial bodies. This celestial order is praised in Psalm 19, while its partial disorder is lamented in Enoch 80. Within this framework, the sun, moon, and stars are revealed as the great timekeepers in a perfect Creation, as described in Genesis 1:1419, only to be obscured again in a deluge 1656 years later, again in a state of disorder.
From the orderly Creation to the Flood is 1656 years (MT). This duration can be dissected into 23 x 72 years. The number 72 stands out as it symbolizes ‘one day’ in the Precession of the Stars. Converting ’23 x 72′ to ’25 x 72′ results in an increase of 144 years (or two days of Precession), yielding a sum of 1800 years—identical to half a Babylonian Sar, five cycles of 360 years, or 25 days of Precession.
Enhancing the significance of the 1656year period from Creation to the Flood is its initial 460year phase, concluding with Jarod’s birth. Jarod plays a pivotal role due to his association with the uprising of the AngelWatchers, as documented in both the Book of Enoch and the Book of Jubilees. This revolt led to the rise of the “giants,” who were eradicated in the Flood. Notably, 460 years—each comprising 360 days—total exactly 165,600 days, reinforcing the 1656year duration and its tie to the subsequent divine judgment manifest in the Flood.
For those versed in numerical symbolism, 165,600 days can also be interpreted as “2300 days.” This equivalence arises because 165,600 is the product of 2300 and 72 days, and in this context, 72 days can symbolize 72 years, considered a single day to the stars. The linguist’s goal is to master the language rather than to pass judgment on it.
It grew until it reached the host of the heavens, and it threw some of the starry host down to the earth and trampled on them.
He said to me, “It will take 2,300 evenings and mornings; then the sanctuary will be reconsecrated.”
Daniel 8:10,14.
Examining the period from Jarod’s birth to Noah’s birth reveals a span of 299 x 2 years (or 13 x 23 x 2), with another 299 x 2 years extending from Noah to the Flood. These spans help resolve a twoyear variation related to the Flood, as cited in Genesis 5:32 and 11:10. This “two years” allows for a flexible interpretation of Noah’s 600year lifespan before the Flood and Shem’s 600 years until his death, allowing 598—justified because 598 solar years equals 600 Enochian years. The recurrent appearance of “23” in twos, as in 230 x 2 to Jarod and 299 x 2 to Noah and again to the Flood, gains traction at the Flood when they entered “two by two” in symmetrical order.
The importance of the 1656year span receives further corroboration from diverse textual traditions—the Masoretic Text (MT), the Septuagint (LXX), and the Samaritan Pentateuch (SP), along with the Book of Jubilees. Each source confirms the 1656year interval: MT associates it with the Flood, LXX links it to Noah’s birth, and SP connects it to Noah’s death. (Refer to Chart “Creation to Noah Compared in the MT, LXX, SP.”)
Further illuminating this numerical pattern, the number 23 recurs between two significant events, the Flood and the Exodus, spaced 23 x 22 x 2 years apart. The Book of Jubilees states that God created 22 unique things during the six days of Creation; thus, doubling 22 could imply cosmic completeness, starting with God speaking the world into existence and ending at Mt. Sinai, when God spoke from heaven (Exodus 19:19). The number “22” gains added theological weight as there are 22 letters in the Hebrew alphabet.
From the first pair expelled from Eden to a nation’s Exodus destined for a new Eden—a journey taking another 23 + 23 years to complete—we come full circle: two intervals of 23 x 23 x 2 years, from Eden to Noah and from the Flood to the Promised Land’s period of rest after six years of war (Joshua 14:615). Moreover, converting 23 to 25, “23 x 23 x 2” becomes 1150 years. This places Noah, whose name means “Rest,” midpoint between these two 1150year spans (Daniel 8), as if palindromic between two accursed serpents, one in Eden and the other on a pole in the Sinai desert.
Now he called his name Noah, saying, “This one will give us rest from our work and from the toil of our hands arising from the ground which the LORD has cursed.”
Genesis 5:29 (NASB)
Moreover, the 1656 years from Creation to the Flood can be refined to specify the exact number of days, thereby aligning Creation with the Flood that began on the 47th day of the year.
According to Genesis, God separated the waters on the “2nd day” of Creation. Noah was subsequently told to board the Ark 40 days after the New Year (Gen. 7:612). A week later, the Flood waters burst forth, effectively undoing the separation of waters performed on Creation’s second day.
We will explore this complex chronology in detail, starting from the 2nd and 5th days of Creation—when God first divided the waters and three days later populated this vertical space—until the day Noah entered the Ark. Seven days later, a 40day deluge began, fulfilling a precise span of 1656 years and 42 days.
The Flood According to the 364Calendar of Enoch
The New Year on the Enochian calendar always begins on a Wednesday. From the perspective of the Enoch calendar, the Flood year, therefore, began on Wednesday morning. Therefore, from the 2nd day of Creation (Monday), when “God separated the waters from the waters,” to the day that Noah and his family entered the ark, the duration is exactly 1656 years and 42 days.
The “2nd day” of Creation plus 42 days equals the 44th day. However, on the Enoch calendar, this is the 40th day, Monday, because his calendar begins on the morning of the fourth day, Wednesday.
The Flood According to the 360Prophetic Calendar
From the 360calendar (and lunar) perspective, the Flood began on a Saturday just after sunset, counting from Creation. From the 5th day of Creation (Thursday), when God filled the sky and the sea (paralleling the separation of the sky and sea on the 2nd day), exactly 1656 years and 42 days pass, landing precisely on the day the Flood began! (The 5th day plus 42 days equals the 47th day when the rains began, “the 17th day of the 2nd month”.)
Footnote: Moreover, from the 40th day of Creation to the 47th of the Flood are 1661.5 x 364 days. And because we do not know what New Year was used at the Flood (was it in spring or autumn?) This also aligns as if to condense the entire period from Creation to the Flood into seven symbolic days. The Book of Jubilees places signification to 40 days after Creation (plus seven years), reflecting the tradition of the creation/birth of a male and the 40 days of cleansing according to the law.
Consider the remarkable convergence of elements required to achieve such precision!
Quick addendum: The Flood was in 2458/6 BC (with 290/292 years to Abraham's birth in 2166 BC, plus 760 more to when Israel entered Egypt in 1406 BC. This puts the Creation at 4114/2 BC. But 1656 equals as 1680 on the 336calendar, thus 2456 BC plus 1680 years equals as 4136 BC. From 4136 BC to 1406 BC are 2730 years, which is like 2730 days, which is like the '7.5 x 364 days' of the Enoch calendar, which, in turn, the full Creation of Enoch lasted 7.5 days. Recall that Solomon's temple took 7.5 years to build and the temple is a pattern of the Creation, etc.
Metonic cycles and the Key of 23
The importance of “23 years” is also detected in the Metonic cycles and in Eclipse years.
 To improve the Metonic cycle, add two days every 23 cycles (23 x 19 = 437 years)
The most accurate correction of the 19year Metonic cycle is to add two days every 23 cycles. (Of note, after seven days, God commanded Ezekiel to lay on his side for 430 days, which is 437 days in total, “a day for each year” Ezek 14. The LXX instead has 190 days, which as years are ten Metonic cycles.)
Below is a quote from Wikipedia concerning the Hipparchic cycle. Hipparchus was a Greek astronomer best known for his (re)discovery of the Precession of the Equinox.
In fact, an even better correction would be to correcting by two days every 437 years, rather than one day every 228 years. The length of 437=23*19 tropical years, about 159610.837 days, is shorter than that of 23*235 synodic months, about 159612.833 days, by almost exactly two days, up to only six minutes.

The 345year eclipse cycle (23 x 15) equals 363.531 Eclipse years (i.e., the ‘364th’ year of Enoch)
Another name for an Eclipse year is a Draconian year. A solar eclipse expresses the harmony of the solar and lunar calendars. The sun and moon are God’s celestial “Two Witnesses,” Rev. 11.
The importance of 345 years is enormous. Indeed, it may be at the root of why 23 became so significant to Jewish scribes: For if 345 years is harmonious, multiples and quotients of 345 must likewise be, although to a lesser extent.
 345 solar years is 350 years of 360 days and 375 years of 336 priestly years. Thus, the eclipse cycle of 126007 days fits exceptionally well with the seven days (one week) of Creation, Passover, Tabernacles, Hanukkah, and the Flood narrative.
 For example, from the last day of Passover, say, in 931 BC (the year the Southern and Northern kingdoms began) unto the first day of Passover in 586 BC (the year the Southern Kingdom terminated) are 345 solar years (126000 days, which is 350 prophetic years and 375 priestly years).
 Ezekiel 32:18 may allude to the 345eclipse cycle unto 586/5 and further broken down into 230 + 115 (931 to 701 to 586 BC). In 701 BC, God delayed the fall of Jerusalem 115 years when the sun reversed direction, 2 Kings 20:811; Isa. 38:78.
 Creation to the ministry of Christ is 345 times twelve years (4114 BC to AD 27)
(Wikipedia) Hipparchus also studied the motion of the Moon and confirmed the accurate values for two periods of its motion that Chaldean astronomers are widely presumed^{[24]} to have possessed before him, whatever their ultimate origin. The traditional value (from Babylonian System B) for the mean synodic month is 29 days; 31,50,8,20 (sexagesimal) = 29.5305941… days. Expressed as 29 days + 12 hours + 793/1080 hours this value has been used later in the Hebrew calendar. The Chaldeans also knew that 251 synodic months ≈ 269 anomalistic months. Hipparchus used the multiple of this period by a factor of 17, because that interval is also an eclipse period, and is also close to an integer number of years (4267 moons : 4573 anomalistic periods : 4630.53 nodal periods : 4611.98 lunar orbits : 344.996 years : 344.982 solar orbits : 126,007.003 days : 126,351.985 rotations).^{[note 1]}
What was so exceptional and useful about the cycle was that all 345yearinterval eclipse pairs occur slightly over 126,007 days apart within a tight range of only about ±^{1}⁄_{2} hour, guaranteeing (after division by 4267) an estimate of the synodic month correct to one part in order of magnitude 10 million. The 345year periodicity is why^{[25]} the ancients could conceive of a mean month and quantify it so accurately that it is even today correct to a fraction of a second of time.
…Modern scholars agree that Hipparchus rounded the eclipse period to the nearest hour, and used it to confirm the validity of the traditional values, rather than try to derive an improved value from his own observations. From modern ephemerides^{[27]} and taking account of the change in the length of the day (see ΔT) we estimate that the error in the assumed length of the synodic month was less than 0.2 seconds in the 4th century bc and less than 0.1 seconds in Hipparchus’s time. (Wiki)
Integrating Leap Months and Weeks in 360 and 364Day Calendars:
The Invariability of 336Year Cycles
The most streamlined and internally consistent method for synchronizing the 360 and 364day calendars with the actual solar year—measuring approximately 365.2425 days—draws on the structure of Creation’s seven days. In this context, cycles of 4, 40, 400, and 4000 stand out as key numerical constants.
This calendrical arrangement demonstrates remarkable compatibility with both Julian and Gregorian systems. It’s worth reiterating that the Biblical account specifies the creation of the sun and moon on the morning of Creation’s fourth day, thus inaugurating the 364day weekly calendar. For a more indepth discussion on how various calendars align with this system, consult the paper “How all calendars harmonize in Cycles.” Also, examine the suggested New Year for the Enoch calendar from 1915 to 2075.
Lunar Calendar and 23 Metonic Cycles: Exceptional Accuracy and the “Residual 23”
The lunar calendar employs the Metonic cycle, a 19year period that includes seven leap months for synchronizing solar and lunar timekeeping. One remarkable feature of this system is its enduring precision. This is achieved by adding an extra two days every 437 years. Intriguingly, 437 years correspond to exactly 23 Metonic cycles, each of 19 years (19 x 23).
We previously discussed the time span of 2668 years (23 x 116 converts to 25 x 116) from Creation to the Exodus, which can be recalibrated to 2900 years. This results in a period of 60 jubilees that concludes in 1406 BC, marking the beginning of the jubilees. According to the rules of the “residual 23,” it should be highlighted that 2900 solar years on the lunar calendar equate exactly to 61 lunar jubilees. This calculation requires no intercalations and amounts to 35,868 lunations (49 x 12 x 61). Indeed, 60 solar jubilees align seamlessly with 61 lunar jubilees, creating a harmonious interplay between solar and lunar timekeeping.
Outline of Chapter Six:
 Chapter Six: The Significance of “23” in Seder Olam Rabbah (SOR) Jewish Chronology
 Charts and Tables
 Long Chronology of SOR (Consecutive Age Summation of Patriarchs)
 SOR Chronological Charts
 Engrafting the Jewish chronology (SOR) back into its family tree
 The Numerical Significance of 23 in the Seder Olam Rabbah (SOR)
 Additional Instances of 23’s Numerical Prominence in the Seder Olam Rabbah (SOR)
Chapter Six and Chronological Charts
Charts and Tables:
See Enoch’s Prophecy of 7 cycles of 490
Also, see Trump, 23, and the Book of Jubilees
These two charts will be explained later. It is part of the “Key of 23“.
See en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sumerian_King_List
Also, see “The Pillars of Time.”
Chapter Six: The Role of “23” in Seder Olam Rabbah (SOR) Jewish Chronology
The actual Exodus occurred in 1446 BC, contrary to the 1313/1311 BC posited by the SOR. However, if we recalibrate the SOR chronology by applying the accepted date for Jerusalem’s fall in 586/587 BC, the SOR Exodus date shifts to 1476/1474 BC. Consequently, the date for Creation in the SOR framework adjusts to 3924/3922 BC. This realignment results in an 850year period, or “17 x 50” years (per SOR) from Joshua’s conquest in 1436/1434 BC (the revised SOR date) to Jerusalem’s fall in 586 or 587 BC.
The conventional and revised SOR chronologies and the standard Anno Mundi (AM) count from Creation will be presented herein.
Long Chronology of SOR (Consecutive Age Summation of Patriarchs)
According to the extended SOR chronology, Joshua’s conquest took place in 1436 BC. If we add “12,600 years”—the length of the long chronology—to Adam, the Creation date emerges as 14036 BC (or 14039 BC if we consider Aaron, born about three years before Moses). An adjustment of ‘plus or minus two years’ at the time of the Flood results in a range from Spring 14041 to Spring 14034 BC.
The original “Long Chronology” puts the Creation date as 30 years later, ranging from 14011 to 14004 BC. Notably, the span from 14036 BC to Christ’s birth in 6 BC, and to Christ at age 30 in AD 25, precisely aligns as 23 x 610 or 23 x 630, factoring in the 460 years of Kenan as cited in Luke 3:23,36,37. (See Long Chronology Chart.)
The computation of 23 x 630 can also be expressed as 69 x 210. As explained earlier, 69 converts to 70. Thus, 69 x 210 becomes 70 x 210 and equates to 14,700 years (or 300 x 49), which aligns with the said period up to 6 BC and AD 25 (I..e, expanded as from 14706/14676 BC). Similarly, from the adjusted Exodus dates of 1476/1446 BC, there are precisely 1,470 years up to 6 BC and AD 30. Hence, there are both “300” Jubilees and “30” jubilees leading to the times of Christ’s birth and ministry, corroborated by Luke 3:23.
Also, ’23’ x 630 converts to ’25’ x 630, which adds precisely 1260 years to “23 x 630,” a figure referenced in Revelation 1112.
Notes: Starting with the calculation of "23 x 610," which converts to "25 x 610," we pinpoint the year 15256 BC. This year is a full 10,000 years before 5256 BC, a critical date for the Creation in Luke’s genealogy, which consists of 75 generations from Adam to Christ's birth. Adjusting 15256 BC according to the genuine date of the Conquest in 1406 BC gives us 15226 BC. This adjustment is noteworthy because it spans 12,000 years from 15226 BC to 3226 BC, as per the Book of Enoch. Here, 3226 BC is derived by adding 26 generations (MT) of 70 years (Enochian generation) to 1406 BC. Within the range of 14006 to 3226 BC, we find 220 jubilees (230 jubilees to Enoch), which amounts to 230 x 49 when we include the 460 of Kenan to the SOR's "14496 BC." Noteworthy is the palindromic symmetry exhibited between the BC and AD counterparts of 15256/15226 (i.e., 15256/15226 BC & AD). This mirroring effect recurs with a 340jubilee back calculation to the years 1406/1436 BC. Though additional instances of such reflective symmetry could be enumerated, I defer elaboration upon those details to the reader's initiative.
As previously stated, the Long Chronology is an order of magnitude greater than the Short Chronology. The Masoretic Text (MT) Long Chronology for the Flood/Arphaxad is pinpointed at 4831 BC—or 5291 BC when the additional 460 years attributed to Kenan are included. Notably, 4830 converts to 4900 (70 x 70), and as previously demonstrated, 5290 x 2 yields 11500. It should be observed that there are precisely 4900 years from 4831 BC to the fall of Jerusalem in AD 70, with a division of the final 70 years occurring at AD 30, in accordance with Daniel 9 and Enoch 9192. When incorporating a threeyear adjustment calculated via Aaron rather than Moses, coupled with the additional "two years" at the time of the Flood, the dates become 4836 and 5296 BC. The year 4836 BC is precisely 3430 years prior to the conquest in 1406 BC (or SOR 4866 to 1436), constituting 70 jubilees—a time span of significant importance. Furthermore, the exact time frame for the Flood date ranges from 4836 to 4829 BC, aligning perfectly with the 70 jubilees leading to the seven years of Conquest. (See Long Chronology Chart for Flood date.) Additionally, 4836 BC is 70 times 23 years removed from Enoch's date of Creation in 3226 BC, which is itself 70 x 2 x 23 years prior to 6 BC. It is worth noting that the MT "Short" Flood date is 2458/6 BC, which equates to 50 jubilees to 6 BC and is corroborated by the Flood date in the Book of Enoch. Both chronologies intersect at 2456 BC at the point of the Flood/Arphaxad, indicating a coordinated scheme. Exactly 35 years later (or half of 70), Selah is born to Arphaxad, marking 11.5 generations of 70 years from Enoch's Creation (23 x 35). The name Selah, meaning "sent," typifies Christ, the One Sent into the world. Moreover, 23 generations from Adam brings us to Levi. Noah died 350 years postFlood. The confluence of these timelines seems too structured to be attributed to mere coincidence. Enoch's simple generational schema of 70 years serves as the foundational template for both the Short and Long Chronologies, as well as their variations across the Septuagint (LXX), Samaritan Pentateuch (SP), New Testament (NT), SOR, and Sumerian Tablets. All these can be traced back to this original structure, even when the optional Kenan is included. For instance, when Kenan is integrated into the genealogy as in the Book of Jubilees and the Gospel of Luke, the two chronologies are separated by exactly 40 jubilees or 1960 years: 5226 to 3269 BC. This implies that Luke was aware that 1406 BC was the factual date of the Conquest. Matthew's tripartite division into "14 generations" also indicates that he likely had the date 1406 BC in mind. Starting from Abraham and ending with Christ, Matthew delineates 40 generations in total, equating to 2806 BC (40 x 70). This happens to bisect the timeline to 1406 BC. Considering that 1400 years is equivalent to 20 generations of 70 years, or alternatively 14 generations of 100 years, the number "1400" emerges as the lowest common multiple of the three biblically suggested generational lengths: 40, 70, and 100. This harmonizes with the additional 40 years spent in the wilderness, amounting to 360 x 4 years. Hence, 1406 BC is the most logical outcome based on biblical numerics and the Book of Enoch. Remarkably, this also aligns with historical data. As for the numeral "23," Luke and Matthew count generations in opposite directions in their respective genealogies. When laid endtoend, this totals 75 + 40 = 115 generations, or 23 x 5. When calculated with generations of 100 years, this equals 11500 years, or 4600 with generations of 40.
SOR Chronological Charts
The chart below is the same except expressed in BC and AD.
Engrafting the Jewish chronology (SOR) back into its family tree: A Comparative Analysis
The diagram below presents a calibrated SOR (Seder Olam Rabbah) chronology that accords with the universally accepted historical date for the fall of Jerusalem in 586/587 BC, rather than adhering to the SOR’s controversial assertion of 423/421 BC. This calibration retains fidelity to the SOR framework at every juncture, save for its erroneous claim that the interval between Jerusalem’s first and second fall fulfills the “490 years” stipulated in Daniel 9. Mainstream historical consensus pinpoints the fall of Jerusalem at 586/587 BC, contradicting the SOR’s date of 423/421 BC.
To reconcile these disparities, an earlier Exodus date becomes necessary within the context of the SOR. Specifically, aligning the SOR with the historically corroborated date for the fall of Jerusalem in 586 BC necessitates shifting the Exodus to 1476 BC, diverging from the commonly accepted date of 1446 BC. Consequently, this realigned SOR extends the timeframe from the Exodus to the fall of Jerusalem by an additional 30 years, producing an 890year span as opposed to the historically validated 860 years.
This 30year extension aligns well with the anticipations of scholars working within the SOR paradigm. The modernday consensus supporting a 1446 BC date for the Exodus is grounded in astronomical data unavailable to scholars nearly 1900 years ago when the SOR was meticulously calibrated. Given the intricate challenge of determining the precise lengths of Judahite monarchical reigns, an “890year” period from the Exodus to the fall of Jerusalem would have seemed a plausible approximation to chronologists of that era. For example, Bishop Usher posited an Exodus date of 1491 BC.
In addition to these calibrations, the chart below offers an alternative twoyear decrement, suggesting a Creation date of 3922 BC instead of the SORconsistent 3924 BC. While 3922 BC is incompatible with SOR stipulations, it does facilitate a 2450year span from Creation to the Exodus, a duration frequently invoked in Jewish chronology—as seen in the 3761 to 1311 BC range rather than the precise 3761 to 1313 BC. Therefore, 3924 BC should be regarded as the historically accurate Creation date, while 3922 BC serves as a figurative alternative.
Also, see The “Shmita” is at hand! Jew and Gentile “One New Man” Aug. 6, 2021
The Numerical Significance of 23 in the Seder Olam Rabbah (SOR)
The Seder Olam Rabbah (SOR) continues to manifest a proclivity for multiples of 23, suggesting a systematic and perhaps intentional encoding of this particular number within its chronological architecture.
This focus on 23 is particularly important given that the SOR appears to have been constructed in contradistinction to the Samaritan Pentateuch (SP) and the Book of Jubilees. Notably, the interval between the SP and the corrected SOR Creation dates is 276 years (23 x 12), which spans from 4200 BC in the SP to 3924 BC in the SOR.
Moreover, the chronological distance between the Masoretic Text (MT), with its truncated 215year sojourn in Egypt, and the SOR registers as 184 years (23 x 8), traversing from 3899 BC to 3761 BC. Additionally, the span from the Septuagint (LXX) to the SOR amounts to 1518 years (23 x 66), spanning from 5279 BC to 3761 BC.
In the Gospel of Luke, 75 generations are delineated from Adam to the nativity of Christ. This genealogical structure harmonizes with the Book of Enoch, which employs a generational count based on 70year increments. Luke posits 69 (23 x 3) generations from Enoch to Christ, as per Luke 3:2338 and Enoch 92. If one calculates “75 x 70” years prior to 6 BC, the resulting date is 5256 BC, which intriguingly sits at a distance of 1495 years (23 x 65) from the SOR’s original Creation date of 3761 BC.
When one endeavors to compute the interrelationships among all these chronologies—taking into account the dual Creation dates of 3924 and 3922 BC, as well as the SOR Creation dates of 3761 and 3759 BC, along with the 460year period from Adam to Jarod—the numinous impact of multiples of 23 emerges as nothing short of astounding.
Additional Instances of 23’s Numerical Prominence in the Seder Olam Rabbah (SOR)
 Creation to Flood, 23 x 72
 Creation to Jarod, 23 x 20
 Creation to Lamech, 23 x 38
 Abraham’s birth to when Moses fled to Midian, 23 x 20
 23 x 80 and 23 x 60 to death of Christ, AD 30
 Sarah to Fall of Jerusalem, 23 x 60
 Exodus to fall of Jerusalem in 70 AD, 23 x 60
 From when Israel and his sons entered Egypt to their return from Babylonian captivity, it is 1150 years, or 23 x 50 (SOR)
 Intriguingly, according to the LXX/SP/NT, Israel and his sons entered Egypt in 1661 BC, making it 1290 years to Judah’s return from Babylon in 371 BC based on the SOR calendar. Both 1150 and 1290 are Biblically significant numbers linked to “the abomination that causes desolation,” as mentioned in Daniel 8:12 and 12:11. Additionally, the SOR chronology places Isaac and Jerusalem’s fall 1290 years apart.
 Conquest of Promised Land to Zerubbabel’s temple, 23 x 40
 Call of Abraham to the birth of Moses, 23 x 15
 Ishmael to Exodus, 23 x 18
 Isaac’s birth to death of Joshua 460 years
 Levi & Judah (priestly and kingly lines), from birth and death, 23 x 5 and 23 x 11 to Mt.Sinai
 Terah to Jacob, 230
 The time span from Jacob’s wedding and his seven years of fathering sons to the seven years for Solomon’s temple construction is 23 x 32 years. Notably, these numbers echo palindromically: the temple began on the religious New Year’s 32nd day and concluded on the Civil New Year’s 23rd day seven years later. From this starting day to the Civil New Year (seven years later), the period measures 23 x 116 days, with an additional 23 days to the day of completion (360Calendar). Interestingly, the period from Creation to the Exodus shares this 23 x 116 pattern, but in years, running from 4114 to 1446 BC according to the Masoretic Text.
 Conquest of Promised Land to completion of Solomon’s palace, 23 x 20
 The time from Adam’s death to Job’s trials spans 23 x 60 years, and an additional 23 x 25 years lead to David’s anointing by Samuel. Notably, the Seder Olam Chronicle explicitly links these three events.)
 Factoring in Terah’s ‘plus 60,’ a series of “23’s” become evident. From Creation to Israel, entering Egypt spans 2300 years. Adding 250 years to reach the Conquest gives us either 2550 or 2448 years—equivalent to ‘1260 + 1290’ or ‘364 x 7’ years. With the additional seven years of Conquest, the total becomes ‘365 x 7’ years.
 Therefore, it’s ‘1150 x 2’ years to the Entry into Egypt and ‘1150 x 3’ years to the construction of Zerubbabel’s temple.
In sum, the recurrence of 23 and its multiples within the Seder Olam Rabbah is too frequent to be dismissed as coincidental. This systematic implementation intimates an intentional numerical schema, offering tantalizing clues for scholars interested in uncovering this ancient chronology’s underlying structure and significance.
Chapter 7
Chart About the Seven Epochs from Creation:
Illustrating the Division of Biblical Ages Through ‘Pillars’ of 120, 130, or 140 Years as it Relates to Pairs of 23 (46).
The primary aim of this chart is to elucidate the inherent fractal patterns in Biblical Chronology. Each date adjacent to the “Pillars” acts as a natural datum. The first and last Pillars are particularly complex, featuring dual datums separated by six years. This span resonates with the six days of Creation and the Fall of Man, specifically represented by the dates associated with Seth (40444038 or 39843978 BC) and Christ (6 BCAD 1).
Although the nuanced relationships between Seth and Christ, identified as ‘ὁ ὡρισμένος—the One appointed’ in Acts 10:42, warrant a deeper investigation, they are not the focus here.
It’s important to underscore that the “130 years” attributed to Seth symbolize the curse incurred seven days/years after Adam’s creation, extending from Friday, the 6th, to the 13th. This notion is suggested in the Bible and explicitly stated in the Book of Jubilees (ch. 2). The Samaritan Pentateuch (SP) mostly agrees, marking a timeline that sums 7 + 700 years leading to Noah, plus an additional 600 years culminating in the Flood—1300 years in total.
Terah’s addition of 60 years (Acts 7:4) further refines this structure, forming a 6+7 (or 7+6) day/year pattern, expressed as (60+70 and 70+60). Terah symbolizes a Fallen Adam in this framework, while his son Abram represents ‘the one appointed.’ The timing of Terah’s death adds another layer of complexity, framing “Pillars 13” with the number 130, which symbolizes the curse. This ‘130’ symmetry starts the first era, symbolized by Creation, and closes the third era, marked by the transitional phases involving Terah and Abram as new Adam and Seth figures.
And I will put אָשִׁ֗ית enmity between you and the woman, And between your seed and her Seed; He shall bruise your head, And you shall bruise His heel.”
And Adam knew his wife again, and she bore a son and named him Seth שֵׁ֑ת, “For God has appointed שָֽׁת another seed for me instead of Abel, whom Cain killed.”
When Adam had lived 130 years, he had a son in his own likeness, in his own image; and he named him Seth.
Genesis 3:15; 4:25; 5:3 (NKJV, NIV)
Examples of the Fractal Nature of the Chronology: A House of Mirrors
In the context of Biblical chronology, the “Pillars” serve not just as chronological anchors but as interactive mirrors. They create a complex web of reflections, where various pillars bear dates that resonate with one another—forming a metaphorical house of mirrors. ‘Year 930’ serves as a case in point: it emerges as a thematic mirror that connects figures such as Adam, Moses, Solomon, and Christ through the common thread of kingship. ‘Year 930’ signifies the death of Adam (Gen. 5:5) if the chronology begins with the Creation event, denoted as “930 anno mundi.” But from the perspective of the Flood in 2456 BC, Moses’ birth in 1526 BC is also ‘Year 930’. This occurs again with Solomon and Christ.
Within our current calendrical system, which takes Christ’s birth as its anchor, 930 BC marks yet another milestone: the death of Solomon and the advent of the Kings of Israel and Judah. This confluence makes ‘Year 930’ a thematic mirror within this complex reflective system. Moses emerges as a redemptive figure, offsetting the sin originating with Adam. Similarly, Christ stands as a corrective to Solomon’s failures. Intriguingly, these four figures unite through a shared theme of kingship: Adam, sovereign of Creation; Moses and Solomon, rulers over Israel; and Christ, King of kings and Lord of lords.
The time span between Pillar 1 (Adam/Seth) and Pillar 2 (Flood) is ‘Year 1406’ (or ‘1400’). This period calculation stems from Seth’s birth that occurred “130” years after the Creation (or the dayyear extension of the Fall of Man) forward until the “120 years of the Flood.” This specific numerical framework reappears in the sixyear Conquest leading up to Christ’s birth, recognized as ‘Year 1406/1400’ or 1406/1400 BC when viewed from Christ’s birth year. Additionally, the 120 years leading to the Flood echo the 120 years comprising Moses’ lifespan (1526 to 1406 BC), as viewed from the perspective of the 120 years flood (P2) to the 120 years of the United Kingdom (P6), mirroring as ‘Year 15261406’.
From the Flood (P2) to the Conquest (P5) spans ‘Years 9301050,’ or 9311051 alternatively. This sequence mirrors the years stretching from the United Kingdom (P6) to Christ (P8), specifically 1050 to 930 BC. Both segments from P4 to P7 and P5 to P8 share the temporal marker ‘Year 1400.’ The interval between P5 and the final Bar Kochba exile (P8) is ‘Year 1661,’ resonating with Israel’s 215year sojourn in Egypt, P4, dated to 1661 BC.
The span from P7 to P8 denotes ‘Year 600,’ mirroring Noah’s ‘Year 600’ at the Flood. This numerical parallel gains significance when integrating the Long Chronology (“MT Accumulative Sum at Death”) with the Sumerian Tablets. For instance, the duration from Noah in 5436 BC to 606 BC, as outlined in the chart, amounts to 4830 (23 x 210) years (69 ‘weeks’ of 70 years each), aligning with Daniel 9:2427. Adding complexity, the timeframe from P1 to P3 (Adam to Abraham) coincides with ‘Year 1948,’ matching 1948 AD—when Abraham’s descendants returned to the Promised Land. Consequently, May 1948 AD is ‘Year 4114’ from Abraham (P3), mirroring Creation in 4114 BC (or 3761 of SOR).
Importantly, these pivotal dates, anchored by the Pillars, construct a recurring fractal pattern within the Biblical narrative. This intricate pattern reaches its apex with the birth of Christ, who acts as the supreme mirror around which all other lesser mirrors pivot. The datum point of our current era, and takes into account the 6 BC nuance, serves as this ultimate mirroring axis. It reflects the BC and AD epochs while also encapsulating the lesser mirrors denoted by the Pillars.
Moreover, the mirroring phenomenon is further accentuated by distinct chronological markers: A period of (2+12) years culminates in Christ’s temple visit, as indicated in Matthew 2:16, Luke 2:42, and Isaiah 78. Additionally, a span of 140 years reaches to the Bar Kochba revolt in AD 135 (P8), and a duration of 1400 years stretches back to the Conquest in 1406 BC (P5). Most notably, the cumulative years of all the patriarchs from Adam to Moses amass to 12600 years, which terminates at Christ’s birth, extending 14000 years from 14006 BC to 6 BC (14140 in total).
These expanding, mirrorlike numerical patterns all direct attention to Christ, spotlighting His pivotal role as the apex of reflection, to which all other ancillary mirrors yield and find fulfillment. Central to this is the ’46 years’ cited in John 2:20, serving as a cornerstone from 20 BC to AD 27. This specific duration resonates broadly, being 46 x 305 years from 14004 BC, or ‘Year 4140’ (46 x 90) from Creation in 4114 BC (P1). It also measures 46 x 54 years from the Flood in 2458 BC (P2) and 46 x 32 years from the Exodus in 1446 BC.
The pattern completes its cycle with a forward extension of 46 x 30 years to AD 1406/7, mirroring P5—the year marking the deaths of Aaron and Moses and the initiation of the sixyear conquest. The foundational role of the ’46 years’ in these chronologies gains added weight when considered alongside the statistical analysis for 46 and 460 (459) for birth dates of Patriarchs from Adam to Aaron, the firstborn, and his death in 1407 BC, discussed at the outset of this paper, where the ZScores (Sigma) were between 3.22 and 4.63 for the Long Chronology,
and thus extremely unlikely to be chance, but that becomes overwhelming once the mirroring effect of the 46year cornerstone is included in the statistical analysis.
However, the central emphasis of Chapter 7 is to examine the numerical pairings specifically associated with the number ’23’ (i.e., “46 years”). Therefore:
 With Terah +60, from Man’s formation at P1 (4176 BC or 3961 BC), ‘Year 2300’ is reached at P4.
 From Seth (P1, 3829 BC) to Aaron and Moses (P5, 1529 BC), ‘Year 2300’ is also reached.
 P2 to P8, after 215 LXX adjustment and +60 for Terah, are 2300 years.
 P3 to P8 also marks ‘Year 2300.’
Exploring Pairs of 23 (46) in the Seven Epochs Chart
When the Pillars themselves are excluded—akin to measuring gaps between doorways while disregarding the frames—the sum of intervals between Pillars 1 and 5 equals 2070 years (‘1400 + 160 + 160 + 350 = 2070’). This can be further divided into 23 x 90 or 46 x 45. This sets the stage for a total of 3220 years from Pillar 1 to 8 (2070 + 1150), equating to 23 x 140 or 46 x 70.
Transitioning to Pillars 5 through 8, the total years for these final three spans sum to 1150 years (23 x 50; 46 x 25). When these transitional Pillars are excluded, the chronological stretch from ‘1406 BC’ to ‘6 BC’ also equals 1150 years, computed as ‘355 + 196 + 599’ (Daniel 8). In this interpretive framework, the Conquest of Canaan symbolically took place in 1156 BC. A side note in the chart also points out a potential fluctuation of +/ 1 year at Pillar 7a, making room for an alternative calculation: 355 + 197 (= 23 x 24; 46 x 12) + 598 (23 x 26; 46 x 13), which still totals 1150 years. Thus, with transitional Pillars excluded, the Creation date matches 3226 BC, corroborating Enoch’s Chronology Chart.
The chart underlines the theme of numerical pairing in the Bible. When counted inclusively and exclusively, the spans between even and odd pillars amount to 1260 x 1260 (7 x 360). This extends the seven days of Creation into a symbolic seven years. Notably, Pillar 7 has dual positions: “Pillar 7a” and “7b”; when counted twice, the sum of all pillars equals 1150.
These Biblical eras intriguingly intersect with the Long Chronology and the Sumerian Kings List.
At What Age Did Each of the Kings of Judah Begin to Reign?
Also, see The “Shmita” is at hand! Jew and Gentile “One New Man” Aug. 6, 2021
Other posts about Enoch and his Calendar
 Enoch: Tribulation Witness
 Is the Book of Enoch Inspired?
 Enoch’s Prophecy of 7 cycles of 490
 Part One: How the 364day calendar works
 The Key of 23 — Serpent into a rod
 Enoch calendar is also Pi to 22nd decimal
See “The Pillars of Time.”